Urdu, Hindi: Use for kih for jo (?)

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Senior Member
Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
I am not sure if this subject has been touched upon before. I have tried to search the forum threads for this usage but without success.

There is a famous Faiz nazm which begins with the following words

ham kih Thahre ajnabi, itnii mulaaqaatoN ke ba3d
phir baneN ge aashnaa ktnii mudaaraatoN ke ba3d
kab nazar meN aa'e gii, be-daaGh sabze kii bahaar
xuun ke dhabbe dhuleN ge kitnii barsaatoN ke ba3d

Do you feel the "kih" here actually stands for "jo"? If yes, why has the poet not used "jo" (apart from any prosody reasons). If it is n't equivalent to "jo", what extra dimention does this "kih" add? I have included Hindi in the title too just in case Hindi writers employ this mode of expression as well.

The title of the post should be "Use of kih for jo (?)"
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  • marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    I think it can be equally well substituted by جبکہ jabkih or even jo kih. Would it make sense?


    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Platts states that this construction is "borrowed from the Persian" and identifies this "kih" as an "explicatory particle [known as "kaaf-i-bayaaniyah", the kaaf of the descriptive sentence when preceded by a substantive and "kaaf-i-silah" , the kaaf of the conjunctive clause when it is preceded by a relative pronoun]. Here are some of the examples he has provided.

    a) vaziir kih (vuh) mard-i-daanaa thaa (The vaziir who (lit. he) was a wise man.)

    b) kih kisii aise shaxs se mulaaqaat ho jaa'e kih us ke saath vatan meN jaa'uuN (..to the end that I might meet with such person with whom (lit. that with him) I might return to my native land.)

    c) dekhaa kih ek duukaan hai kih us meN do pinjre laTke haiN (I perceived that there is a shop wherein (that in it) two cages are hanging.0

    d) vuh Ghulaam kih jis ne parvarish paa'ii thii (that slave who had been fostered..)

    In my view the "kih"in a) can be replaced by "jo"
    in b) and c) "kih us" can be replaced with "jis"
    in d) "kih" appears to be superflous

    Similar to d) is Faiz's ...

    laazim hai kih ham bhii dekheñN ge
    vuh din kih jis kaa va3dah hai
    jo lauH-i-azal meN likhkhaa hai
    jab zulm-o-sitam ke koh-e-giraaN......

    Here too, one could get away with taking out "kih" although "kih" could be translated as "that" in English.

    The day that for which there is a promise
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