Urdu/Hindi: when to use "Jo" "jis" "kis"

  • marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Direct case kaun, kyaa 'who, what'– oblique case: kis: in questions, [e.g. kis kaa 'whose? (m.sg.)']
    Direct case jo 'the one who; which (relative)' – oblique case: jis: for relative clauses [e.g. jis kaa x [..., whose x (m.sg.)]


    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Hi urdulearner24. If you had provided one or two examples showing your area of difficulty, that would have been helpful.

    "jo" in the postpositional situation becomes "jis" and in the plural jis > jin

    Similarly "kaun" who, when it has postposition, it changes to "kis" and plural is "kin"

    جو بات تجھ میں ہے تیری تصویر میں نہیں

    jo baat tujh meN hai terii tasviir meN nahiiN = The thing (quality) that is in you, is not in your portrait.

    جس نے میرے دل کو درد دیا اُس شکل کہ میں نے بھُلایا نہیں۔

    jis ne mere dil ko dard diyaa, us shakl ko maiN ne bhulaayaa nahiiN = The person who has pained my heart, I have not forgotten his/her face

    کس کو اب وطن میں ہو گا آہ میرا انتطار؟

    kis ko vatan meN ho gaa aah meraa intizaar = Oh, who will now wait for me back home?