Urdu, Hindi: When to use "nahiiN" or "nah/na" to negate a verb

Qureshpor

Senior Member
Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
Friends,

I am not sure if we have covered this topic before. I would like to know when one should employ "nahiiN" and when we should use "nah/na" to negate a verb?

Thanking you all in advance.
 
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  • marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    I did go through some threads to find out if there are ones on this matter but couldn't find any either.

    Do you have any case to discuss?

    I can tell you one from the top of my head, imperative 2nd person sg. goes together with nah but not nahiiN.
     
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    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Thank you marrish SaaHib. The imperative is the most obvious one but even here I think one hears "nahiiN karo". So, I am interested in those tenses which definitely have "nah/na" as the negating particle. By a process of elimination the rest will be with "nahiiN".
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    This is what R. L. Schmidt has to say in: Urdu. An Essential Grammar, and I quote:

    The negative words nahīṁ, na, mat

    نہیں nahīṁ makes negative sentences in present tenses, past tenses except the simple past, presumptive tenses and the future. Negative words usually come right before the verb phrase. The present auxiliary hai is usually dropped.

    وہ اتوار کو نہیں آتا
    voh itvār ko nahīṁ ātā —He doesn’t (does not) come on Sundays (dropped hai).

    وہ اتوار کو نہیں آتا تھا
    voh itvār ko nahīṁ ātā thā (Past auxiliary tha is kept.) He didn’t (did not) use to come on Sundays.

    نہ nah makes negative sentences in the subjunctive, simple past and conditional tenses. It also makes negative polite requests corresponding to the pronoun آپ āp, and sometimes with requests corresponding to the pronoun تم tum.

    آج وہ نہ آیا
    āj voh nah āyā —He didn’t (did not) come today.

    وہ پچھلے منگل کو بھی نہ آیا تھا
    voh pichle maṁgal ko bhī nah āyā thā —He didn’t (did nor) come last Tuesday either.

    شاید وہ وقت پر نہ آئے
    śāyad voh vaqt par nah ā'ē —Maybe he won’t (will not) come on time.

    کل نہ آئیے، پرسوں آئیے
    kal nah ā'iye, parsoṁ ā'iye —Please don’t (do not) come tomorrow; come the day after tomorrow.

    سیکل یہاں نہ چھوڑو
    saikal yahāṁ nah choṛo —Don’t (do not) leave the bicycle here.

    مت mat makes negative requests or prohibitions corresponding to the intimate and non-honorific pronouns تو and تم tum, and also infinitive-requests.

    دیر مت کر، گھر جا
    dēr mat kar, ghar jā —Don’t (do not) dawdle; go home (request corresponding to ).

    بھائی کو مت چھیڑو
    bhā'ī ko mat chēṛō —Don’t (do not) tease (your) brother (request corresponding to tum).

    اس دکان سے کچھ مت خریدنا
    us dukān sē kuch mat xarīdnā —Don’t (do not) buy anything from that shop (infinitive).
     
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    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    This is what R. L. Schmidt has to say in: Urdu. An Essential Grammar, and I quote:

    The negative words nahīṁ, na, mat

    نہیں nahīṁ makes negative sentences in present tenses, past tenses except the simple past, presumptive tenses and the future. Negative words usually come right before the verb phrase. The present auxiliary hai is usually dropped.

    وہ اتوار کو نہیں آتا
    voh itvār ko nahīṁ ātā —He doesn’t (does not) come on Sundays (dropped hai).

    وہ اتوار کو نہیں آتا تھا
    voh itvār ko nahīṁ ātā thā (Past auxiliary tha is kept.) He didn’t (did not) use to come on Sundays.

    نہ nah makes negative sentences in the subjunctive, simple past and conditional tenses. It also makes negative polite requests corresponding to the pronoun آپ āp, and sometimes with requests corresponding to the pronoun تم tum.

    آج وہ نہ آیا
    āj voh nah āyā —He didn’t (did not) come today.

    وہ پچھلے منگل کو بھی نہ آیا تھا
    voh pichle maṁgal ko bhī nah āyā thā —He didn’t (did not) come last Tuesday either.

    شاید وہ وقت پر نہ آئے
    śāyad voh vaqt par nah ā'ē —Maybe he won’t (will not) come on time.

    کل نہ آئیے، پرسوں آئیے
    kal nah ā'iye, parsoṁ ā'iye —Please don’t (do not) come tomorrow; come the day after tomorrow.

    سیکل یہاں نہ چھوڑو
    saikal yahāṁ nah choṛo —Don’t (do not) leave the bicycle here.

    مت mat makes negative requests or prohibitions corresponding to the intimate and non-honorific pronouns تو and تم tum, and also infinitive-requests.

    دیر مت کر، گھر جا
    dēr mat kar, ghar jā —Don’t (do not) dawdle; go home (request corresponding to ).

    بھائی کو مت چھیڑو
    bhā'ī ko mat chēṛō —Don’t (do not) tease (your) brother (request corresponding to tum).

    اس دکان سے کچھ مت خریدنا
    us dukān sē kuch mat xarīdnā —Don’t (do not) buy anything from that shop (infinitive).
    مرش صاحب۔ آپ کی محنت اور جانفشانی کے لئے میں آپ کا نہایت ممنون ہوں۔

    نہیں والے دو جملوں میں مجھے کوئی اختلاف نہیں ہے۔

    آج وہ نہ آیا

    یہاں میرے نزدیک آج وہ نہیں آیا زیادہ موزوں لگتا ہے۔

    وہ پچھلے منگل کو بھی نہ آیا تھا

    یہاں بھی نہیں آیا تھا ہونا چاہیئے۔

    آپ کی کیا رائے ہے؟
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I came across the following sentence while reading a book...

    "Mohsin Kakorvi Urdu ke phle shaa3ir haiN jinhoN ne na3t-go'ii ko sanjiidagii se ek mustaqil fan kii Haisiyyat se apnaayaa aur us buland satH tak le ga'e jis se aage baRhnaa duusroN ke liye aasaan nah rahaa..."
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    آج وہ نہ آیا

    یہاں میرے نزدیک آج وہ نہیں آیا زیادہ موزوں لگتا ہے۔
    [ mere xayaal meN donoN hii Thiik haiN magar ta'assur yih hae kih aajkal kii urduu ke liHaaz se agle logoN ke isti3maal meN Ghaalib_an nah hii ziyaadah paayaa jaataa hae. ]

    وہ پچھلے منگل کو بھی نہ آیا تھا

    یہاں بھی نہیں آیا تھا ہونا چاہیئے۔
    [ aap kii raa'e SaHiiH hae. qudratii taur par to Haqiiqat meN 'nahiiN aayaa thaa' zabaan par aataa hae ]
    آپ کی کیا رائے ہے؟
    [ ho saktaa hae is kitaab meN nah, nahiiN aur mat kaa zikr kisii aur kitaab kii dekhaa dekhii kiyaa gayaa ho? yaa to musannifah kii nijii taHqiiq hu'ii hogii, aap kaa kyaa xayaal hae? ]
     
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