Vaccine

Włoskipolak 72

Senior Member
Polish
How do you say vaccine in your langauage ?
The word vaccine, and vaccination, actually comes from the name for a pox virus—the cowpox virus, vaccinia, to be exact?
The Oxford English Dictionary credits the French for coining the term vaccine in 1800 and vaccination in 1803 (although there are cognates in Italian, vaccino, Portuguese, vacina, and Spanish, vacuna)

Polish

vaccine = szczepionka [ʃʧ̑ɛˈpʲjɔ̃nka]

vaccinate = szczepić

Od XIV w.; pochodzi od psłow. *ščepiti / *ščepati ‘łupać, rozszczepiać’ > ‘rozszczepiać drzewko, by włożyć zaszczepkę’.
Dawniej występowała forma szczepać ‘łupać na szczapy, rozłupywać’

From XIV cen.; it comes from Proto-Slavic. * Ščepiti / * Ščepati 'peel, split'> 'split the tree to insert a scion ,shoot .'
 
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  • Greek:

    Vaccine: «Εμβόλιο» [emˈvɔ.li.ɔ] (neut.) < Byzantine Greek neuter diminutive «ἐμβόλιον» embólion, which described the tip of the lance/spear, later, the muzzle* in general, from the Classical neuter noun «ἔμβολον» émbŏlŏn --> prow of triremes (warships), wedge, bolt, bar, a compound: Classical prefix and preposition «ἐν» ĕn (which becomes «ἐμ-» ĕm- when the next word starts with a labial consonant) + deverbative noun «βόλος/βολή» bólŏs (masc.) or bolḗ (fem.) --> throw(ing) < Classical v. «βάλλω» bắllō; the medical term is no more than 200 years old. In Modern Greek, «έμβολο» [ˈem.vɔ.lɔ] (neut.) is still the wedge, nozzle, but «εμβόλιο» [emˈvɔ.li.ɔ] (neut.) is only the vaccine.

    Vaccination: «Εμβολιασμός» [em.vɔ.li.aˈzmɔs] (masc.), a word constructed in 1833.

    To vaccinate: «Εμβολιάζω» [em.vɔ.liˈa.zɔ], also constructed in 1833.

    * And the nozzle
     
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    Włoskipolak 72

    Senior Member
    Polish
    Greek:

    Vaccine: «Εμβόλιο» [emˈvɔ.li.ɔ] (neut.) < Byzantine Greek neuter diminutive «ἐμβόλιον» embólion, which described the tip of the lance/spear, later, the muzzle* in general, from the Classical neuter noun «ἔμβολον» émbŏlŏn --> prow of triremes (warships), wedge, bolt, bar, a compound: Classical prefix and preposition «ἐν» ĕn (which becomes «ἐμ-» ĕm- when the next word starts with a labial consonant) + deverbative noun «βόλος/βολή» bólŏs (masc.) or bolḗ (fem.) --> throw(ing) < Classical v. «βάλλω» bắllō; the medical term is no more than 200 years old. In Modern Greek, «έμβολο» [ˈem.vɔ.lɔ] (neut.) is still the wedge, nozzle, but «εμβόλιο» [emˈvɔ.li.ɔ] (neut.) is only the vaccine.

    Vaccination: «Εμβολιασμός» [em.vɔ.li.aˈzmɔs] (masc.), a word constructed in 1833.

    To vaccinate: «Εμβολιάζω» [em.vɔ.liˈa.zɔ], also constructed in 1833.

    * And the nozzle
    So the medical termin is quite modern.

    And what about μπόλι ? Does it mean graft ?

    To insert a graft in another tree.

    From Middle Dutch graft (“canal”), from graven (“dig”).The contemporary senses “depth of digging blade” and “narrow spade” may have a separate history, but this is uncertain.
    Compare Old Norse grǫft (“the action of digging”). Attested from the 17th century.

    In Polish, graft = vaccine , szczepić , przeszczep = (medicine) transplant ,operation.
     
    So the medical termin is quite modern.

    And what about μπόλι ? Does it mean graft ?
    ...
    Yes it does and it's simply the aphetism and apocope of εμβόλιο > εμβόλιο > *μβόλι > μπόλι (pronounced [ˈbɔ.li] (neut.)).
    The verb then becomes «μπολιάζω» [bɔˈʎa.zɔ] --> to graft (a plant).
    In human medicine, graft is «μόσχευμα» [ˈmɔ.sçev.ma] (neut.) < ByzGr neut. noun «μόσχευμα» móskheu̯ma --> shoot, slip < Classical masc. noun «μόσχος» móskʰŏs --> offshoot of plants, slip, stalk of a leaf, young cow, heifer, calf (PIE *mosǵʰo-/*mosgʰo- young of an animal, young shoot cf Arm. մոզին (mozin), calf, heifer, Lith. māzgas, bud of a tree).
     
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    Kaoss

    Senior Member
    Spanish-Spain
    How do you say vaccine in your langauage ?
    The word vaccine, and vaccination, actually comes from the name for a pox virus—the cowpox virus, vaccinia, to be exact?
    The Oxford English Dictionary credits the French for coining the term vaccine in 1800 and vaccination in 1803 (although there are cognates in Italian, vaccino, Portuguese, vacina, and Spanish, vacuna)

    Polish

    vaccine = szczepionka [ʃʧ̑ɛˈpʲjɔ̃nka]

    vaccinate = szczepić

    Od XIV w.; pochodzi od psłow. *ščepiti / *ščepati ‘łupać, rozszczepiać’ > ‘rozszczepiać drzewko, by włożyć zaszczepkę’.
    Dawniej występowała forma szczepać ‘łupać na szczapy, rozłupywać’

    From XIV cen.; it comes from Proto-Slavic. * Ščepiti / * Ščepati 'peel, split'> 'split the tree to insert a scion ,shoot .'
    The Spanish "Vacuna" comes from "vaca" (cow). The cow's virus is the "viruela vacuna" (lit. cow's smallpox). "Vacuno" can refer to anything related to cows: milk, meat.
     
    What about embolus and embolization, what do you use for that instead?
    For embolus, we use the feminine form «εμβολή» [em.vɔˈli] < Classical feminine noun «ἐμβολή» ĕmbŏlḗ --> charge, insertion, ramming (of a ship), discharge of a missile < «ἐν» ĕn + fem. «βολή» bŏlḗ (for their etymology check one of my previous posts).
    For embolization we use «εμβολισμός» [em.vɔ.liˈzmɔs] (masc.).
    Note «εμβολιασμός» [em.vɔ.li.aˈzmɔs] (masc.) --> vaccination«εμβολισμός» [em.vɔliˈzmɔs] (masc.) --> embolization
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    Actually it is. I'd have expected something more Slavic looking like the Polish word.
    Well, Russian is pretty anti-puristic. In fact, even most of its Slavic scientific terms are Slavonicisms. Speaking of native technical terms describing modern realities, I can think only about "airplane", "motor ship" and "diesel locomotive" at the moment (plus a couple more of hybrid compound terms, like in "electric locomotive"), at least if we exclude machine parts (of course there are native terms for things like gears and shafts, even though they're heavily diluted by loans from German).

    Russian does have a native term for "vaccination" - прививка (privivka [pɾʲɪ'vʲifkə] - "(an act of) vaccination"; "graft"), but not for vaccine itself.
     
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    dihydrogen monoxide

    Senior Member
    Slovene, Serbo-Croat
    прививка

    What's the root of the verb here? Is it -ви? So, при is prefix, ви would be some verb, what would be its infinitive and meaning? Maybe it's related to Slovene viti 'to wind, to turn'
     

    Penyafort

    Senior Member
    Catalan (Catalonia), Spanish (Spain)
    In Catalan, two possibilities are accepted by official dictionaries:

    1) el vaccí - the one which agrees with most Romance languages and which comes from the learned adjective for something related to cows. This is mostly used in the written language or in the media. Derived terms: vaccinació (act), vaccinador (person), vaccinar (verb), vaccínic (adjective).​
    2) la vacuna - the one which entered from Spanish a century ago and is the most used in common speech. Derived terms: vacunació (act), vacunador (person), vacunar (verb).​
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    прививка

    What's the root of the verb here? Is it -ви? So, при is prefix, ви would be some verb, what would be its infinitive and meaning? Maybe it's related to Slovene viti 'to wind, to turn'
    It's при-ви-в-к-а (at least without going deep into theoretical morphology). The root is basically the same as in вить (to wind/twine), вью (I wind/twine); the closest English cognate is "wire". The meaning "vaccination" arises from the meaning "grafting" (hornicultural); the latter is apparently related to the method of connecting the graft to the stem.
     

    Penyafort

    Senior Member
    Catalan (Catalonia), Spanish (Spain)
    To be clear, "vaccí" is mostly used in some, very few media. "Vacuna" is by far the most common in any register, and I think most people have found out about "vaccí" for the first time during this pandemic.

    Well, a quick search shows that the media in which it is used are quite a few and from all over the Catalan-speaking area. What I simply meant, though, was that the word is written rather than spoken.

    I personally think that the overdose of the word these days is a good opportunity to use the most genuine one more often and I applaud the media and journalists that do it. After all, we say bústia and entrepà just because one single person proposed it.

    Note: If I say "the most genuine one", it's simply because that -uno/una ending is a very Spanish thing that you don't see in other Romance languages. Where Spanish has caballuno, porcuno, toruno/boyuno, gatuno, cervuno, osuno, ovejuno, perruno, zorruno, asnuno and vacuno, we have cavallí, porquí, boví, moixí, cerví, ursí, oví, caní, rabosí, asiní and vaquí or the more learned vaccí. We never see "cavallú", "porcú", "bovú" or "vacú" in Catalan, so why use vacuna in the same way we used bussó(n)? This is not about reinstating an ancient word from the Cròniques, it's simply prioritising the logical already-existing genuine word in a doublet.
     

    Dymn

    Senior Member
    We never see "cavallú", "porcú", "bovú" or "vacú" in Catalan, so why use vacuna in the same way we used bussó(n)?
    My honest opinion is busson with that final -n had clearly non-Catalan morphology so it was banned from official dictionaries whereas vacuna although with a Spanish suffix can perfecly pass for a Catalan native word.
     
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