Verb Conjugation (present)


Senior Member
After posting All languages: Subject Pronouns.
Here is the next one "Verb Conjugation" , which means form of the verbs.

English is somehow easier.

He ( male ) eats
she ( female) eats
It ( neutral ) eats
I eat
You ( informal,formal ) eat
They eat
we eat
you eat


In my opinion Farsi is very " M and M " sounded language in case of Verbs Conjugation.

khorde'n = eat ( english)

Ho ( male, female , Neutral) me khor ra
man me khor um
Tu (informal ) me khor hi
Shoma (formal ) me khor hen
Hanah me khor a'n
Shomah me khor e'n
Mah me khor em

essen = to eat
oops it is regular so i choose a regular one
gehen = to go (english)

Er (male) geht
Sie(female) geht
Es ( Neutral) geht
ich gehe
Sie ( formal )
Du ( informal ) gehst
Sie gehen
Ihr geht
Wir gehen

For me it is really interesting to know about other languages.

note: it is only present tense.

i hope i didn't make any mistake.
  • Norwegian:

    å spise - 'to eat'

    The present form is spiser. Needless to say, you need an appropriate personal pronoun in front of it, depending on context ;)
    Well, in turkish it is a little bit complex since we use the present progressive tense more often than the simple present tense.

    Anyway i conjugate the verb to eat (yemek) for both
    Subject Present Prog. Simple Present
    1S Ben yiyorum yerim
    2S Sen yiyorsun yersin
    3S O yiyor yer
    1P Biz yiyoruz yeriz
    2P Siz yiyorsunuz yersiniz
    3P Onlar yiyorlar yerler

    1S: 1st Person Singular
    Spanish verbs have three endings: -ar -er -ir.

    Regular verbs ending in -ar have these suffixes:
    (e.g. amar: amo, amas, ama, amamos, amáis, aman)

    Regular verbs ending in -er have these suffixes:
    (e.g. beber: bebo, bebes, bebe, bemos, bebéis, beben)

    Regular verbs ending in -er have these suffixes:
    (e.g. vivir: vivo, vives, vive, vivimos, vivís, viven)
    I'll plagiarize Spanish:

    Portuguese verbs have three endings: -ar -er -ir.

    Regular verbs ending in -ar have these suffixes:
    (e.g. amar: amo, amas, ama, amamos, amais, amam)

    Regular verbs ending in -er have these suffixes:
    (e.g. beber: bebo, bebes, bebe, bemos, bebeis, bebem)

    Regular verbs ending in -ir have these suffixes:
    (e.g. partir: parto, partes, parte, partimos, partis, partem)

    I guess I can write up some more about Norwegian verbs:

    The majority of the infinitives end in -e, and form the present tense by adding an -r to the infinitive.

    As in my first post: spise --> spiser

    There are some irregularities of course - some infinitives don't end in -e (si - 'say' --> sier), and some present tenses don't form by adding an -r to the infinitive (spørre - 'ask' --> spør). Other than those though, it's pretty regular.

    infinitive to eat = syödä
    1S: (minä) syön
    2S: (sinä) syöt
    3S: (hän) syö
    1P: (me) syömme
    2P: (te) syötte
    3P: (he) syövät
    Using the pronoun is not necessary, usually it's omitted.
    En griego, in greek:

    εγώ τρώω -egó tróo
    εσύ τρως - esí tros
    αυτός/αυτή/αυτό τρώει -aftós/aftí/aftó trói (he/she/it)
    εμείς τρώμε - emís tróme
    εσείς τρώτε - esís tróte
    αυτοί/αυτές/αυτά τρώνε - aftí/aftés/aftá tróne
    In French

    Je mange
    Tu manges
    Il mange
    Nous mangeons
    Vous mangez
    Ils mangent

    I'll add some more. The ones in the quote are -er verbs.

    -dre verbs


    tu apprends
    il apprend
    nous apprenons
    vous apprenez
    ils apprennent

    -ir verbs (1)


    je sors
    tu sors
    il sort
    nous sortons
    vous sortez
    ils sortent

    -ir verbs (2)


    je réfléchis
    tu réfléchis
    il réfléchit
    nous réfléchissons
    vous réfléchissez
    ils réfléchissent

    -re verbs

    These verbs are too irregular to be listed up here. The most important -re verbs I can think of right now are: écrire, dire, lire, être, vivre

    -uire verbs


    je conduis
    tu conduis
    il conduit
    nous conduisons
    vous conduisez
    ils conduisent

    -aindre verbs


    tu atteins
    il atteint
    nous atteignons
    vous atteignez
    ils atteignent
    Italian regular verbs have three endings: -ar, -er, -ir.

    Regular verbs ending in -ar have these suffixes:
    -o .........................................(I)
    -i ..........................................(you sing./thou)
    -a .........................................(he/she/it/you sing. formal)
    -iamo .....................................(we)
    -ate ......................................(you plur)
    -ano ......................................(they)
    (e.g. amare: amo, ami, ama, amiamo, amate, amano)

    Regular verbs ending in -er have these suffixes:
    (e.g. vendere: vendo, vendi, vende, vendiamo, vendete, vendono)

    Regular verbs ending in -er have these suffixes:
    (e.g. dormire: dormo, dormi, dorme, domiamo, dormite, dormono)
    Blue Wolf, aren't there also verbs ending in -urre which are more or less regular? I'm thinking of tradurre as an example.

    Verbs that end in -urre (or even in -orre) do exist but they aren't considered regular verbs.
    However in order to have the declination of the verbs in -urre you simply change the verb back to the original Latin form. So tradurre is declinated as if it were traducere.
    In Dutch you have only one type of verb-ending, namely -en:

    werken (to work):

    1sg ik werk
    2sg jij werkt (normal you singular)
    u werkt (polite you)
    3sg hij/zij/het werkt

    1pl wij werken
    2pl jullie werken (normal you plural)
    u werkt (polite you)
    3pl zij werken

    When there is inversion (pronoun comes after verb, like in a question) the form of you singular = Werk jij? -> so without 't'.

    There are a few verbs where the stem vowel changes, for example:

    kunnen (can, to be able to)

    ik kan
    jij kunt
    hij kan
    wij kunnen
    Well... Hungarian has two forms for every conjugation. A definite and an indefinite form. Besides, Hungarian has the vowel harmony, so I'll write down each suffix.
    The infinitive ends in -ni and it's replaced by the suffix.

    Én... -ok, -ek, -ök (-om, -em, -öm)¹
    Te... -sz, -ál², -él²
    Õ ... X³, -ik¹
    Mi... -unk, -ünk
    Ti... -tok. -tek, -tök
    Õk... -nak, -nek

    ¹: some verbs have just in the 3rd person the suffix -ik. In those cases, the verb in the 1st person singular receives -om, -em, -öm.
    ²: verbs that end by two consonants or s, z or sz receive that suffix.
    ³: usually, verbs don't have a 3rd person singular suffix.

    Én... -om, -em, -öm
    Te... -od, -em, -öd
    Õ ... -ja, -i
    Mi... -juk, -jük
    Ti... -játok. -itek
    Õk... -ják, -ik


    He ( male ) eats = Han äter
    she ( female) eats = Hon äter
    It ( neutral ) eats = Den äter
    I eat = Jag äter
    You ( informal,formal ) eat = Ni äter
    They eat = De/dem/(dom) äter
    we eat = Vi äter
    you eat = Ni äter
    In Gaelic, verbs are only conjugated in tense. They only show person in the conditional first person (singular and plural).

    Also, the only verb that has a simple present tense is "bi" (to be). Also note, the verb comes before the subject.
    It is used like so. Note, there are Positive, Negative, Interrogative, and Negative interrogative forms of the verb.

    Present tense positive:
    Tha mi || I am
    Tha thu || You are
    The e/i || He/she is
    Tha sinn || We are
    Tha sibh || You (polite and plural) are
    Tha iad || They are

    Present tense negative:
    Chan eil mi || I am not
    Chan eil thu || You are not
    Chan eil e/i || He/she is not
    Chan eil sinn || We are not
    Chan eil sibh || You (polite and plural) are not
    Chan eil iad || They are not

    Present interrogative:
    A bheil mi? || Am I?
    A bheil thu? || Are you?
    A bheil e/i? || Is he/she?
    A bheil sinn? || Are we?
    A bheil sibh? || Are you (polite and plural)?
    A bheil iad? || Are they?

    Present negative interrogative:
    Nach eil mi? || Aren't I?
    Nach eil thu? || Aren't you?
    Nach eil e/i? || Isn't he/she?
    Nach eil sinn? || Aren't we?
    Nach eil sibh? || Aren't you?
    Nach eil iad? || Aren't they?

    Past tense positive is bha
    Past tense negative is cha robh
    Past tense interrogative is an robh
    Past tense negative interrogative is nach robh
    Future tense positive is bidh
    Future tense negative is cha bhi
    Future tense interrogative is am bi
    Future tense negative interrogative is nach bi
    Relative future tense (after relative pronoun) is bhios
    Conditional tense positive is bhiodh
    Conditional tense negative is cha bhiodh
    Conditional tense interrogative is am biodh
    Conditional tense negative interrogative is nach biodh

    Once again, same for all persons. Except for the conditional. Where b(h)iodh changes to b(h)ithinn and b(h)iomaid for the first person singular and plural tenses, respectively.

    Oh, also there is a verbal noun form for all verbs (like the gerund in English): bith
    All other tenses are formed with this form. Except for some forms of the passive voice.
    If I can remember. The present tense of Icelandic verbs is something like this.

    að tala (to speak)
    ég tala || I speak
    þú talar || you speak
    hann/hún/það talar || he/she/it speaks
    við tölum || we speak
    þið tal || you (plural) speak
    þeir/þær/þau tala || they (masculine, feminine, neuter) speak

    There is also a second group that is like so:
    að heita (to be called)
    ég heiti
    þú heitir
    hann/hún/það heitir
    við heitum
    þið heit
    þeir/þær/þau heita

    Verbs belonging in the 1st conjugation (verbs ending in «-ω» [-o̞]):
    Singular present indicative
    «-ω» [-o̞]
    «-εις» [-is̠]
    «-ει» [-i]
    «-ουμε» [-ume̞]
    «-ετε» [-e̞t̠e̞]
    «-ουν» [-un]
    Eg: «Τρέχω» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.xo̞]* --> to run >
    1st p. sing. «τρέχω» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.x] --> I run
    2nd p. sing. «τρέχεις» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.çis̠] --> You run
    3rd p. sing. «τρέχει» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.çi] --> S/he/it runs
    1st p. pl. «τρέχουμε» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.xume̞] --> We run
    2nd p. pl. «τρέχετε» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.çe̞t̠e̞] --> You all run
    3rd p. pl. «τρέχουν» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.xun] --> They run.

    Verbs belonging in the 2nd conjugation (verbs ending in «-άω» [-ˈa.o̞] (uncontracted)/«-ώ» [-ˈo̞] (contracted)):
    Singular present indicative:
    «-άω/-ώ» [-ˈa.o̞]/[-ˈo̞]
    «-άς» [-as̠]
    «-άει/-ά» [-ˈa.i]/[-ˈa]
    «-άμε» [-ˈ̞]
    «-άτε» [-ˈa.t̠e̞]
    «-άνε/-ούν» [-ˈ̞]/[-ˈun]
    Eg: «Κολυμπάω/κολυμπώ» [ko̞liᶬˈba.o̞] (uncontracted)/[ko̞liᶬˈbo̞] (contracted)** --> to swim >
    1st p. sing. «κολυμπάω/κολυμπώ» [ko̞liᶬˈba.o̞] (uncontracted)/[ko̞liᶬˈb] (contracted) --> I swim
    2nd p. sing. «κολυμπάς» [ko̞liᶬˈbas̠] --> You swim
    3rd p. sing. «κολυμπάει/κολυμπά» [ko̞liᶬˈba.i]/[ko̞liᶬˈba] --> S/he/it swims
    1st p. pl. «κολυμπάμε» [ko̞liᶬˈ̞] --> We swim
    2nd p. pl. «κολυμπάτε» [ko̞liᶬˈba.t̠e̞] --> You all swim
    3rd p. pl. «κολυμπάνε/κολυμπούν» [ko̞liᶬˈ̞]/[ko̞liᶬˈbun] --> They swim.

    * MoGr verb «τρέχω» [ˈt̠ɾe̞.xo̞] --> to run < Classical Greek verb «τρέχω» /ˈtre.kʰɔː/ --> to run, hurry (PIE *dʰregʰ- to run isolated within Greek).
    ** MoGr verb «κολυμπάω/κολυμπώ» [ko̞liᶬˈba.o̞] (uncontracted)/[ko̞liᶬˈbo̞] (contracted) --> to swim < Classical Greek verb «κολυμβάω-κολυμβῶ» /kolymˈbɐ.ɔː/ (uncontracted)-/kolymˈbɔ̂ː/ (contracted) --> to dive, submerge, jump into the water, swim (per Beekes, the variant «κολυμφάω» /kolymˈpʰɐ.ɔː/ proves that it's Pre-Greek).

    Three conjugations, but the 2nd and 3rd have two types:

    1st conjugation (verbs ending in -AR):
    menjo - I eat | menges - you eat | menja - he/she/it eats
    mengem - we eat | mengeu - you eat | mengen - they eat

    2nd conjugation type 1 (verbs ending in -RE):
    perdo - I lose | perds - you lose | perd - he/she/it loses
    perdem - we lose | perdeu - you lose | perden - they lose

    2nd conjugation type 2 (verbs ending in -ER):
    temo - I fear | tems - you fear | tem - he/she/it fears
    temem - we fear | temeu - you fear | temen - they fear

    3rd conjugation type 1 (verbs ending in -IR):
    dormo - I sleep | dorms - you sleep | dorm - he/she/it sleeps
    dormim - we sleep | dormiu - you sleep | dormen - they sleep

    3rd conjugation type 2 (verbs ending in -IR which use augment):
    serveixo - I serve | serveixes - you serve | serveix - he/she/it serves
    servim - we serve | serviu - you serve | serveixen - they serve

    NOTE: This is Standard Central Catalan. Some endings and the augment may be slightly different in other varieties.
    Russian has two basic conjugation patterns (officially, anyway; South Russian influence complicates things a bit). That being said, there are various morphologized phonetic shifts of the past, mobile stress (which also complicates things), and you must know the present tense stem of the verb to begin with. (Some verbs even have slightly different stems for infinitive, imperative, present/future and past/subjunctive forms.)
    Here are several verbs to illustrate most points:
    brát' (to take), brít' (to shave), pít' (to drink), lyubít' (to love/like) berú, bréyu, p'yú, lyublyú beryósh, bréyesh, p'yósh, lyúbish beryót, bréyet, p'yót, lyúbit beryóm, bréyem, p'yóm, lyúbim beryóte, bréyete, p'yóte, lyúbite berút, bréyut, p'yut, lyúbyat

    (As usual, palatalization of consonants which don't appear before "i" or "e" is denoted by "y" before vowels and by an apostrophe otherwise; the combination -'y- stands for palatalization + /j/, mirroring the Cyrillic orthography of Russian. Non-palatalized consonants before /j/ are rare and hardly ever phonemic, making such transcription acceptable.)
    Just wanted to add that the verbs belonging in the two conjugations I've posted earlier, are active voice verbs (meaning that the subject performs an action), these active verbs have (some of them) a mediopassive voice (the agent is also the patient (medium voice) or the subject is the patient who suffers the action of another agent (passive voice)), or, there are verbs that are active and have a mediopassive form (deponent verbs). These verbs belong into two different conjugations.
    1st conjugation (mediopassive/deponent verbs ending in «-ομαι» [-o̞me̞]):
    Singular present indicative
    «-ομαι» [-o̞me̞]
    «-εσαι» [-e̞s̠e̞]
    «-εται» [-e̞t̠e̞]
    «-όμαστε» [-ˈo̞.mas̠t̠e̞]
    «-εστε» [-e̞s̠t̠e̞]
    «-ονται» [-o̞ᵑde̞]
    Eg: «Πλένομαι» [ˈple̞.no̞me̞]* --> to wash oneself
    1st p. sing. «πλένομαι» [ˈple̞.no̞me̞] --> I wash myself
    2nd p. sing. «πλένεσαι» [ˈple̞.ne̞s̠e̞] --> You wash yourself
    3rd p. sing. «πλένεται» [ˈple̞.ne̞t̠e̞] --> S/he/it washes him/her/itself
    1st p. pl. «πλενόμαστε» [ple̞ˈno̞.mas̠t̠e̞] --> We wash ourselves
    2nd p. pl. «πλένεστε» [ˈple̞.ne̞s̠t̠e̞] --> You all wash yourselves
    3rd p. pl. «πλένονται» [ˈple̞no̞ᵑde̞] --> They wash themselves.
    2nd conjugation (mediopassive verbs with two types of endings «-ιέμαι» [-iˈe̞.me̞] & «-ούμαι» [-ˈ̞]):
    Singular present indicative (Type 1)
    «-ιέμαι» [-iˈ̞]
    «-ιέσαι» [-iˈe̞.s̠e̞]
    «-ιέται» [-iˈe̞.t̠e̞]
    «-ιόμαστε» [-iˈo̞.mas̠t̠e̞]
    «-ιέστε» [-iˈe̞.s̠t̠e̞]
    «-ιούνται» [-iˈu.ᵑde̞]
    Eg: «Αγαπιέμαι» [aɣapˈçe̞.me̞]** --> to be loved
    1st p. sing. «αγαπιέμαι» [aɣapˈçe̞.me̞] (with synizesis) --> I'm loved
    2nd p. sing. «αγαπιέσαι» [aɣapˈçe̞.s̠e̞] --> You're loved
    3rd p. sing. «αγαπιέται» [aɣapˈçe̞t̠e̞] --> S/he/it's loved
    1st p. pl. «αγαπιόμαστε» [aɣapˈço̞.mas̠t̠e̞] --> We're loved
    2nd p. pl. «αγαπιέστε» [aɣapˈçe̞s̠t̠e̞] --> You all are loved
    3rd p. pl. «αγαπιούνται» [aɣapˈçu.ᵑde̞] --> They're loved.
    Singular present indicative (Type 2)
    «-ούμαι» [-ˈ̞]
    «-είσαι» [-ˈi.s̠e̞]
    «-είται» [-ˈi.t̠e̞]
    «-ούμαστε» [-ˈu.mas̠t̠e̞]
    «-είστε» [-ˈi.s̠t̠e̞]
    «-ούνται» [-ˈu.ᵑde̞]
    Eg: «Θεωρούμαι» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾ̞]*** --> to be considered
    1st p. sing. «θεωρούμαι» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾ̞] --> I'm considered
    2nd p. sing. «θεωρείσαι» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾi.s̠e̞] --> You're considered
    3rd p. sing. «θεωρείται» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾi.t̠e̞] --> S/he/it's considered
    1st p. pl. «θεωρούμαστε» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾu.mas̠t̠e̞] --> We're considered
    2nd p. pl. «θεωρείστε» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾi.s̠t̠e̞] --> You all are considered
    3rd p. pl. «θεωρούνται» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾu.ᵑde̞] --> They're considered

    *MoGr verb «πλένομαι» [ˈple̞.no̞me̞] --> to wash oneself is the mediopassive voice of the active verb «πλένω» [ˈple̞.no̞] --> to wash < Ancient Greek verb «πλύνω» /ˈply.nɔː/ --> to wash, clean (PIE *pleu̯- to flow, swim cf. Proto-Slavic *plavati (> R. плавить), Proto-Celtic *ɸlowī (> W. llyw), with o-grade lengthening, Proto-Germanic *flōaną (> Eng. flow)).
    **MoGr verb «αγαπιέμαι» [aɣapˈçe̞.me̞] --> to be loved is the mediopassive voice of the active verb «αγαπάω/αγαπώ» [aɣaˈpa.o̞] (uncontracted)/[aɣaˈpo̞] (contracted) --> to love < Ancient Greek verb «ἀγαπάω-ἀγαπῶ» /ɐgɐˈpɐ.ɔː/ (uncontracted)-/ɐgɐˈpɔ̂ː/ (contracted) --> to receive with friendly feelings, like, love (possibly from the intensifying prefix «ἀγα-» /ɐgɐ-/ --> with/of great < IE *meǵ-h₂- great cf. Αvestan aš- e.g. ašaojah, with great strength).
    ***MoGr verb «θεωρούμαι» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾ̞] --> to be considered which is the mediopassive form of the active voice verb «θεωρώ» [θe̞.o̞ˈɾo̞] --> to consider, contemplate < Ancient Greek verb «θεωρέω-θεωρῶ» /tʰeɔːˈre.ɔː/ (uncontracted)-/tʰeɔːˈrɔ̂ː/ (contracted) --> to observe, contemplate, a denominative from the noun «θεωρός» /tʰeɔːˈros/ (masc. or fem.) --> spectator, envoy to a festival or an oracle, a compound: fem. noun «θέᾱ» /ˈtʰe.ɐː/ --> view, sight, aspect, spectacle (from Proto-Hellenic *θᾱϝᾱ *tʰɐwɐ > θέᾱ, a substrate word) + verb «ὁράω-ὁρῶ» /hoˈrɐ.ɔː/ (uncontracted)-/hoˈrɔ̂ː/ (contracted) --> to look, perceive, contemplate, see (PIE *uer- to observe, note cf. Proto-Germanic *war (> Eng. ware)).
    In Irish, two factors complicate the picture:
    - In the first person, the verb and pronoun (usually - I think there are regional etc variations) fuse to form a single word.
    - In addition to the three persons and two numbers, there is a further ”person”, the “autonomous” form, used when you can’t or won’t specify the subject of the verb. If the verb is transitive, this is usually translated into English with a passive.

    The verb comes before the subject, so:
    bogaim = I move
    bogann tú/sé/sí = you (singular), he/she/it/singular noun moves
    bogaimid = we move
    bogann sibh/siad = you/they/plural noun move
    bogtar = is moved / some person or thing moves
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    Chinese is boring. Male/female, singular/plural, 1st/2d/3d person: the verb doesn't change.
    "Eat" is "chi" (吃). You only change the pronouns in a sentence:

    wǒ chī = I eat
    tā chī = he/she/it eats
    tāmen chī = they eat

    Japanese is the same, though "eat" is "taberu" (食べる).
    Esperanto being an IAL, the boredom is expected. :)

    The present tense is always in -AS, no exceptions.

    you eat = vi manĝas
    she drinks = ŝi trinkas
    I am = mi estas
    we go = ni iras