Verb Morphology: Doubt about -a Verbs and -i/-e Verbs

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kelene

New Member
Spanish, Spain
Hello,
I am studying the -nai. I have a doubt: the -nai form of some verbs like "yobimasu" is "yobanai", while other vebs like "abimasu" do their -nai form like "abinai". How can I find out which verbs with -bi or -ki root use -a in the -nai form and which ones keep their -i?
(ikimasu-ikanai / okimasu-okinai / nomimasu-nomanai/ mimasu-minai / kaerimasu-kaeranai / orimasu-oranai)

Other doubt: does these rules with -a form and -i/-e form apply to the -nakerena narimasen? For instance: ikimasu-ikanakereba narimasen / okimasu- okinakereba narimasen.

Thank you very much!

Otilia Martín
 
  • karuna

    Senior Member
    Latvian, Latvia
    Hi Otilia,

    In order to understand this you should study the difference between two types of verbs in Japanese: godan and ichiban, and see how the -nai form is formed from their simple forms instead from the -masu forms. There are many online study materials available.

    Your examples:
    abimasu is the ichiban verb abiru. For these verbs the final -ru is simply replaced with -nai or -masu respectively.

    yobimasu is the godan verb and the simple form is yobu. These are five times more complicated as there are more categories but in this case the final -u is replaced with -anai and -imasu respectively. So, it is actually very simple and clear-cut, except when the verb in its simple form ends with -iru or -eru because in this case it can be either godan or ichiban and you have to learn its type by heart.

    As for the second question, -nakereba narimasen is indeed formed from the -nai form.
     

    _forumuser_

    Senior Member
    Italian
    Hi Otilia,

    In order to understand this you should study the difference between two types of verbs in Japanese: godan and ichidan, and see how the -nai form is formed from their simple forms instead from the -masu forms. There are many online study materials available.

    Your examples:
    abimasu is the ichidan verb abiru. For these verbs the final -ru is simply replaced with -nai or -masu respectively.

    yobimasu is the godan verb and the simple form is yobu. These are five times more complicated as there are more categories but in this case the final -u is replaced with -anai and -imasu respectively. So, it is actually very simple and clear-cut, except when the verb in its simple form ends with -iru or -eru because in this case it can be either godan or ichiban and you have to learn its type by heart.
    Yes, godan (five steps) and ichidan (one step/single step) verbs. 5-dan and 1-dan means that godan verbs take five different forms depending on the suffix that follows, while ichidan always stay the same:

    godan ...............ichidan
    yoma-............... abi-(nai)
    yomi- ............... abi-(masu)
    yomu ............... abi-ru [3rd base, dictionary form]
    yome-............... abi-(re)
    yomo-............... abi-(ro)

    (the dots are just to divide the two columns)
     
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