verb vs participle


Bahasa Melayu

Is there a rule about when you use the participle form and when you use the conjugated verb form? For example, with words like اختلف and مختلف (baab ifti'aal root) - it seems that using the participle form makes the most sense, but Arabic has both forms.

Thank you so much
  • Participles are used to focus on durativity, i.e. the ongoing aspect of a situation. By contrast, the مضارع is used to express incompleteness.

    هو ذاهب 'He is going (right now).', 'He is in the process of going.'

    يذهب 'He goes (habitually).', 'He will go.'
    Is there a rule about when you use the participle form and when you use the conjugated verb form?
    yes. you may prefer to check these topics in MSA:
    -verbal nouns
    -Active Participle (AP)
    -Passive Participle (PP)
    these are the topics as of I tried to learn, but this thread may be wider than my knowledge.
    Ali Smith said:
    هو ذاهب 'He is going (right now).', 'He is in the process of going.'

    Ali Smith said:
    Ali Smith said:
    for instance ذاهب word is obviously an AP here
    with words like اختلف an مختلف
    and I think
    is passive participle here.

    Kind Note: it seems there is a bit of software (coding) issue and something went wrong above.
    Last edited:
    Both exist: مِخْتَلِف is active while مُخْتَلَف is passive. Since the OP didn’t use حركات, we really can’t tell which one she means.
    I thought as this one:

    if the verb here is ختلف
    my prediction for AP would be : خاتِلف
    extensionally : interestingly yes really Elissa (اليسا) mentions two different forms under the same appearance (with no harrakas)
    but I can easily detect that these are


    see the video clip on youtube by instyructions provided below (instructions on wikipedia):
    Bastanak - Wikipedia

    kermalak (2nd one)
    Only the original form verb فعل مجرّد that consists of three letters can take the form فاعل ومفعول. Verbs like كتب وذهب وسأل. All other verbs have a different system:
    Remove the ألف or همزة from the past tense verb if it has one, then add ميم مضمومة at the beginning. If it doesn’t have one, just add the ميم and make the letter that was first with a سكون.

    Now, if it’s active, the letter before the last should have كسرة, if it’s passive the letter before the last has فتحة.

    اخْتَلَفَ => خْتَلَفَ => مُخْتَلَف مُخْتَلِف
    اسْتَخْلَفَ => مُسْتَخْلِف مُسْتَخْلَف
    خَالَفَ => مُخالِف مُخالَف

    And so on.
    In some contexts, yes, but not in all.
    إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً - البقرة
    Means “I’m going to”. This is in the future.
    فَلَعَلَّكَ تَارِكٌ بَعْضَ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَضَائِقٌ بِهِ صَدْرُكَ - هود
    Means “may do” or even maybe. This is hypothetical.
    وَكَلْبُهُمْ بَاسِطٌ ذِرَاعَيْهِ بِالْوَصِيدِ - الكهف
    Means that he “was”. This is in the past.

    أنا قادم - means I am now, present continuous.

    It depends on the context.
    إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً
    Would إِنِّي be مبتدأ and جَاعِلٌ its خبر? If yes, then خَلِيفَةً is مفعول بِهِ. Can a jumlah ismiyyah have maf3uul bihi?
    إنّي can’t be a مبتدأ, it’s composed of إنّ and the first person singular pronoun الياء.
    The pronoun is اسم إنّ and جاعل is it’s خبر.

    The overall sentence is جملة اسمية, but included within it is شبيه بالفعل, which in this case is اسم الفاعل that happens to be the خبر إن. It’s no different that having خبر جملة فعلية, that might have a مفعول به. Right?

    Consider if the sentence was: إني سأجعل في الأرض خليفة. You stil have a مفعول به, don’t you?