What is a ظرف?

Discussion in 'العربية (Arabic)' started by mujahid7ia, Dec 29, 2006.

  1. mujahid7ia Member

    NY, USA

    Can anyone define the grammatical term ظرف ? Also, what is the difference between a ظرف and a مفعول فيه?

  2. cherine

    cherine Moderator

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Arabic (Egypt).
    Hi Mujahid7ia
    Thanks for the question; I had forgotton about the مفعول فيه , now thanks to you I reviews my grammar book and remembered it :)

    Now, here's what I found in the book :

    المفعول فيه اسم منصوب يُذكر لبيان زمان الفعل أو مكانه (أي يقع في جواب "متى" أو "أين" تم الفعل).
    ويُسمَّى المفعول فيه ظرف زمان إذا دل على زمن وقوع الفعل، ويُسمَّى ظرف مكان إذا دل على مكان وقوعه.

    So, yes, both are the same. We usually don't say just "Zarf", but "zarf zamaan", "zarf makaan". It's the word that indicates the when or the where of the action.
    I don't know about the equivalent of the term, but I hope others can help you with it if you're interested.
  3. Abu Bishr Senior Member

    Afrikaans, South Africa
    Hi everybody

    Yes, they both stand for the same grammatical concept. "Tharf" literally means "container" so it is almost as if time and place serve as containers for an action, since every action has to occur in a time and in a place, such that it is contained by time and place. "Al-maf'uul fiihi" means "the done in", that is, that in which the action is done, as opposed to that on, for or with which it is done. The latter three (i.e. the done "on", "for", & "with") are the "al-maf'uul bihii", "al-maf'uul lahuu/li-ajlihii" & "al-maf'uul ma'ahuu" respectively.
  4. forza lebanon New Member

    Hi every body.​

    the "مفعول به" is like the object in English .

    1.example:I eat an apple .

    If i ask the question what "i eat"??
    .the post is "I eat an apple"

    2.example"I play football"
    what "I play".the post is "i play football"

    so,the "مفعول به" is what the subject has done .

    AND,the "ظرف" (if "مكان أو زمان") is :

    -1:"I am living in Italy".
    If i ask where "i am living".

    The post is "in Italy".
    that is the "ظرف مكان".

    -2:"I study at 8.00 o'clock"
    If i ask when "do you study".

    The post is "at 8.00 o'clock"
    that is the"ظرف زمان".

    I hope this help you!!!mahmoud:)
  5. mujahid7ia Member

    NY, USA
    Thank you all for the responses; I think this concept has been clarified for me.

    forza lebanon, I was asking about مفعول فيه، not به :) but thanks for the examples of ظرف.

    Isn't there one more, the مفعول مطلق?
  6. cherine

    cherine Moderator

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Arabic (Egypt).
    Yes of course. It's a word derivated from the verb, used either for emphasis or for clarification of number or of kind.

    المفعول المطلق اسم منصوب من لفظ الفعل، يُذكر معه لتوكيده أو لبيان نوعه أو عدده.
    مثال :
    - حفظتُ الدرسَ حِفْظًا (توكيد)
    - يدافع الشعب عن حريته دفاعَ الأبطالِ (مبين للنوع)
    - ضربته ثلاثَ ضربات (مبين للعدد)

    There are much more to say about this, but if you wish to learn more, we'd better have a separate thread for it. :)
  7. Abu Bishr Senior Member

    Afrikaans, South Africa
    Hi Guys

    The reason why I did not include the maf'uul muTlaq is that it is an unqualified maf'uul in the sense that it is not qualified by bihii, or fiihi, or ma'ahuu, or lahuu. This is precisely the meaning of muTlaq (unqualified, free from being qualified) unlike the rest of the maf'uuls which are all qualified by a prepositional phrase such as those mentioned. This makes each of them in a manner of speaking "maf'uul muqayyad" (qualified, restricted object) which is the opposite of muTlaq. The reason why I limited myself to these four is that Mujahid mentioned maf'uul fiihi which is qualified by means of "fiihi" so I only dealt with qualified objects.

    I hope it is clear what I'm getting at.
  8. mujahid7ia Member

    NY, USA
    I am interested, but I'm not sure what to ask :).

    Abu Bishr, I understand about the unqualified مفعول. Thanks.
  9. Student4Life Member

    found this thread to be very beneficial.
    I actually posted a question on this here:


    Could somebody help clarify the muta'alliq of a zarf (which I have just learnt that it is synonymous to mafool fihi)? This means that a Mafool Fihi will always be a muta'alliq too?
    When analysing a sentence that has a mafool fihi or zarf, do we just say that this is muta'alliq?

    Thanks for your help

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