Where clause

  • grassy

    Senior Member
    Polish
    The person argues that there's no no middle class in India and that's why there a hole (a gap) in the Indian social strata. There are the rich and the poor, but nothing in the middle.
     

    lingobingo

    Senior Member
    English - England
    Is it a relative clause or a adverbial clause of place?
    Both?

    According to Keith’s interpretation, where is being used as an interrogative adverb.

    But the Oxford (sorry, Lexico :mad:) definition that best fits the construction comes under the heading relative adverb, which would make it a relative clause.


    2.1 In or to a place or situation in which.
    The paper is positioned where his face ought to be…
     

    anahiseri

    Senior Member
    Spanish (Spain) and German (Germany)
    It answers the question "Where is the hole?"
    I don't think it answers that question. The sentence is not about the place where there is a hole; it's not like
    Jane is where the children are playing. - Where is Jane?
    It's a metaphoric expression that means there is no middle class In India. It's not a sentence explaining where you find a hole.
     

    billj

    Member
    British English
    Hi everyone,

    Could you help me with this sentence?

    There is a hole where India’s middle class should be.

    How would you parse the where-clause here?
    Is it a relative clause or a adverbial clause of place?

    Here's its context:Are Indians being fooled about the state of their economy?
    This is a 'fused' relative construction in which "where" is a preposition.

    It can be paraphrased as There is a hole in the place where India's middle class should be.

    In the non-fused paraphrase, the antecedent is "place" and the relative word is "where", which functions as an adjunct of place.
     
    Last edited:

    grammar-in-use

    Senior Member
    Chinese
    This is a 'fused' relative clause in which "where" is a preposition.

    It can be paraphrased as There is a hole in the place where India's middle class should be.

    In the non-fused paraphrase, the antecedent is "place" and the relative word is "where".
    Thanks! I agree with your analysis and paraphrase.
    Then could you possibly give me an example of the adverbial clause of place?
     

    VicNicSor

    Senior Member
    Russian
    I don't think it answers that question. The sentence is not about the place where there is a hole; it's not like
    Jane is where the children are playing. - Where is Jane?
    It's a metaphoric expression that means there is no middle class In India. It's not a sentence explaining where you find a hole.
    It answers a question too:
    There is a hole where India’s middle class should be. — Where's India's middle class?
     

    billj

    Member
    British English
    Thanks! I agree with your analysis and paraphrase.
    Then could you possibly give me an example of the adverbial clause of place?
    Adjuncts of place do not normally have the form of a clause. They are usually PPs, for example:

    They used to meet in the library.
    We had breakfast in bed.
    I saw your father in London.
     

    billj

    Member
    British English
    They used to meet where nobody could see them.
    How would you define this where clause?
    It's actually a preposition phrase in a 'fused' relative construction.

    "Where" functions simultaneously as antecedent and adjunct of place in the embedded relative clause:

    "They used to meet where nobody could see them _____ .

    The gap notation '______' represents "where", which means roughly "in a place" (hence the PP meaning of "where").
     

    grammar-in-use

    Senior Member
    Chinese
    It's actually a preposition phrase in a 'fused' relative construction.

    "Where" functions simultaneously as antecedent and adjunct of place in the embedded relative clause:

    "They used to meet where nobody could see them _____ .

    The gap notation '______' represents "where", which means roughly "in a place" (hence the PP meaning of "where").
    Thank you very much!
    That’s a pretty interesting way to look at it :)
     

    PaulQ

    Senior Member
    UK
    English - England
    There is a hole {where} India's middle class should be.
    There is a hole {in the place where} India's middle class should be.
    (There is a hole {in the place at which} India's middle class should be.)
    There is a hole {in the place that} India's middle class should be.

    A: There is a hole.
    B: “Where is that hole?
    A: “It is in a place.”
    B: “Which place”
    A: “The hypothetical place reserved for India's middle class.
     

    grammar-in-use

    Senior Member
    Chinese
    There is a hole {where} India's middle class should be.
    There is a hole {in the place where} India's middle class should be.
    (There is a hole {in the place at which} India's middle class should be.)
    There is a hole {in the place that} India's middle class should be.

    A: There is a hole.
    B: “Where is that hole?
    A: “It is in a place.”
    B: “Which place”
    A: “The hypothetical place reserved for India's middle class.
    Thank you. It couldn’t be clearer.:thumbsup::)
     

    billj

    Member
    British English
    Thank you. It couldn’t be clearer.:thumbsup::)
    Two important things:

    [1] "Where" is preposition functioning as an adjunct of place in the embedded relative clause.
    [2] "Where India’s middle class should be" is a preposition phrase in a 'fused' relative construction.
     
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