Word categories

kamui42

New Member
french
Hello, I'm a student of computers science and I'm working on a project on Arabic langage.
I know that Arabic words can be put in one of the 3 categories : noun, verb and particle. And now I'm trying to find all the possible subcategories, can someone help me on this ? By giving to me a link to a ressource where I could find this information, or by telling me all the subcategories, with or without explanation.
For example, a noun can be variable or not, and such...
Thank you (sorry for my English...)
 
  • Tajabone

    Senior Member
    French, Berber (Kabyle), Arabic (classical and dialectal)
    Bonjour,
    Comme début, je dirai ceci:
    Il y a au moins 3 catégories:
    1/ Al-ism (le nom)
    2/Al-fi3l (le verbe)
    3/al-Huruuf (les prépositions)
    Un adjéctif sera classé comme étant un non verbe et une non préposition.
    Cela dit, certains livres donnent une bonne représentation des différentes classes grammaticales dans la langue arabe.
    Je vous en informerai si jamais je mettais la main dessus.
    D'ici là, bonne pioche ;)

    Tajabone
     

    Whodunit

    Senior Member
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    Okay, let me start with the category 'nouns,' if I understood you correctly:
    • determined/indetermind: The article 'al-' (الـ), different pronunciation in most dialects, makes the noun determined. It corresponds to the English and French definite article 'the' and 'le/la/les,' respectively. It is assimilated to the so-called 'sun letters.' A noun is indetermined without the definite article. There's no indefinite article in Arabic. Some nouns and proper names are inherently determined, especially names and towns.
    • cases: There are three cases in Arabic, if we want to call them 'cases.' The nominative tells us which noun is the subject (ending: -u [determined]/-un [indetermined]), the accusative is like the object case in French (il plaît à l'homme) and English (I explain it to you), and the genitive is used after prepositions and for the status constructus. The accusative case plays a great role after some conjunctions (li2anna, laakinna, anna), the copula kaana (= to be) and its negative counterpart laysa (= not to be).
    • gender: Arabic has masculine and feminine nouns. Very often, you can recognize them by their ending: Nouns ending in -a[t] (ـة/ة) are feminine, exceptions are possible. You can also recognize them seeing the plural of animated nouns: -uun (ـون) (nominative) and -iin (ـين) (accusative, genitive) are very likely masculine. The ending -aat (ـات) is often misleading, as it the plural ending for femine noun, but some masculine inanimated nouns (especially abstract and verbal nouns) make use of it as well.
    • number: The Arabic noun can appear in the singular, dual, or plural. Not every word can be used for all three numbers. The singular is usually the dictionary form. The dual is a kind of grammatical number we don't know from Romance and Germanic languages (as far as I'm aware of); one uses it for things that "come in two," i.e. you have to say "apple+dual ending" and not "two apples." The plural is often very difficult in Arabic. Only very few masculine nouns have an easy plural, most of the Arabic nouns have one or more broken plural. A special kind of number is the collective: It is treated like a singular, but means the plural. This is also sometimes called a singulare tantum, like the English "pork."
    • diptota: These are words whose 'n' got lost in their indetermined forms: aribbaa2u (أربّاءُ), plural of rabiib (ربيب) = stepson, in the nominative and aribbaa2a (أربّاءَ) in the genitive and accusative case. Some proper names, color adjectives, the elative forms and the quadriliteral plurals belong in this group. Other diptota are those nouns that end in -an in their indetermined form and in -aa in the determined in the nominative: marman (مرمى) and al-marmaa (المرمى). The plural is maraamin (مرام) in the indetermined and al-maraamii (المرامي) in the determined form.
    Uff, I think this should be sufficient for the the time being regarding nouns. If others like they can add the categories 'adjectives,' 'verbs,' and 'particles' (by the way, what is a particle in Arabic? :confused: )
     

    Tajabone

    Senior Member
    French, Berber (Kabyle), Arabic (classical and dialectal)
    Uff, I think this should be sufficient for the the time being regarding nouns. If others like they can add the categories 'adjectives,' 'verbs,' and 'particles' (by the way, what is a particle in Arabic? :confused: )
    So kind of you, Whodunit :)
    Particles in Arabic refer to prepositions like fi, ila, wa, etc.
     

    kamui42

    New Member
    french
    Thank you very much for your replies, sorry for the delay...
    Particles in arabic are الحروف
    Can someone add some informations about subcategories of verbs and particles ?
     

    elroy

    Imperfect Mod
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    Here are some of the subcategories we are taught as native speakers:

    الأسماء:
    -اسم مذكر، اسم مؤنث
    -جمع مذكر سالم، جمع مؤنث سالم، جمع تكسير
    -فاعل، مفعول به، مفعول لأجله، مفعول مطلق، تمييز، اسم مجرور، مضاف، مضاف إليه، اسم منادى، حال
    -الضمائر: ضمير منفصل، ضمير متصل، ضمير مستتر
    الظرف: ظرف زمان، ظرف مكان
    الأفعال:
    -فعل ماضٍ، فعل مضارع، فعل أمر
    -فعل لازم، فعل متعدٍ
    الحروف:
    -حرف نصب، حرف جر، حرف جزم، حرف عطف، حرف توكيد​
     
    < Previous | Next >
    Top