words of German origin

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PERSEE

Senior Member
French, France
Hi, does anyone know where I could find a list of Russian words coming from German?

More generally, is there a free etymological dictionary of Russian on the Internet? Or a cheap one that comes in one volume, not a monster... (I do have a monstrous one in French, but in Russian, I'm still a beginner!)

By the way, I've been unable to find a word in German resembling шкаф, which somehow looks German.

Шарф seems to be a Nordic word. (I looked up the origin of the English "scarf").
 
  • Maroseika

    Moderator
    Russian
    Hi, does anyone know where I could find a list of Russian words coming from German?

    More generally, is there a free etymological dictionary of Russian on the Internet? Or a cheap one that comes in one volume, not a monster... (I do have a monstrous one in French, but in Russian, I'm still a beginner!)

    By the way, I've been unable to find a word in German resembling шкаф, which somehow looks German.

    Шарф seems to be a Nordic word. (I looked up the origin of the English "scarf").
    www.vasmer.narod.ru of Max Vasmer - one of the two best and largest russian etymological dictionaries. The second one - of P. Chernykh - still is not available in the internet, unfotunately.
    Dictionary of Chernykh is more modern (80th), but less in the volume, because prof. Chernykh has expired before his work has been completed.
    Dictionary of Max Vasmer is twice as large, but was completed in the 50th, and therefore is not so precise, not including scientific achievements of the last decades.
    Шкаф < шкап - from Skandinavia (Norv. skap, Danish - skab, Swedish - skap).
    Later шкап has changed to шкаф as affected of German schaff. There was dialectical variant fo this word - шаф.[Chernykh].
    Шарф < Polish szarfa, szarfa (military band) < Ger. Schärpe (scarf) < Fr. echarpe (armlet) - [Vasmer].
     

    K.u.r.t

    Senior Member
    Czech
    www.vasmer.narod.ru of Max Vasmer - one of the two best and largest russian etymological dictionaries. The second one - of P. Chernykh - still is not available in the internet, unfotunately.
    Dictionary of Chernykh is more modern (80th), but less in the volume, because prof. Chernykh has expired retired? before his work has been completed.
    Dictionary of Max Vasmer is twice as large, but was completed in the 50'sth, and therefore is not so precise, not includingit does not include scientific achievements of the last decades.
    Шкаф < шкап - from Skandinavia (Norv. skap, Danish - skab, Swedish - skap).
    Later шкап has changed to шкаф as affected of German schaff. There was dialectical variant fo this word - шаф.[Chernykh].
    Шарф < Polish szarfa, szarfa (military band) < Ger. Schärpe (scarf) < Fr. echarpe (armlet) - [Vasmer].

    IMHO vast number of Russian words are of either germanic or french origin (ie. шлагбаум, мебель, ...) I find new words all the time so it is very unlikely to find a complete list
     

    Maroseika

    Moderator
    Russian
    Dictionary of Chernykh is more modern (80th), but less in the volume, because prof. Chernykh has expired retired? before his work has been completed.
    I cannot imagine that such a scientist like Pavel Chernykh could ever "retire". Unfortunately he has expired (passed away), - keeping working on his dictionary right up to his last sigh.
     

    Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    I have never heard expire to be used with something else than a product. Not in contemporary English anyway.
    To expire = to die is correct, albeit a bit literary. "Deceased" is a perfect choice in my opinion.

    If you want to continue in this discussion, please take it to English Only. :)

    Jana
     

    Maroseika

    Moderator
    Russian
    a promising stub but this is only a fraction of all the words I am afraid. I doubt you will find a complete list.
    And besides I don't think it may have any sense, because many of these words came to Russian thru Polish - changing its sounding, form and even sense, and moreover, many of those German words also have been loaned from somewhere else or ascend to the epoch of Slavic-German-Baltic commonness.
    But of course, it's very amusing reading...
    Anyway, to check all the new Russian words at least in the Vasmer's online dictionary will be much more fruitful, I dare say.
    By the way, originally this dictionary has been created in German, so maybe somewhere in the internet German original also may exist. Russian translation is made by one of the greatest Russian linguists Oleg Trubachev (1930-2002).
     

    PERSEE

    Senior Member
    French, France
    This was my first time on the russian part of the forums. The response is way beyond my wildest dreams! Thanks a lot...

    By the way, if we have any French visitors (and Russian learners) here, I strongly recommend a book I bought recently in the library Le Globe, in Paris: Les Mots russes par la racine, Essai de vocabulaire russe contemporain par l'étymologie (l'Harmattan). It's great for learning the vocabulary, as it lists the words by their roots. Once in a while, in footnotes, they even give you the equivalents of some words in other indoeuropean languages — although it is not an etymological dictionary, more of a lexical guide. Indeed, the authors have filled a gap, as for French learners, Russian words are a great hurdle. For example, knowing that желтый and золото are related makes them both easier to learn.
     
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